Victor Gruen's concept for the enclosed shopping mall is a prime example of unintended consequences and frankly not really thinking things through all that well. The era of the suburban mall helped make the exodus from our cities to the suburbs much more practical, thus hastening the decline of American urban centers.
At least in some areas, the decline of the mall is running in parallel with a movement back to the cities although it's not necessarily a causal relationship. I for one won't be sorry to see the end of the mall as I knew them growing up, I've always hated them.
The Shopping Mall Turns 60 (and Prepares to Retire)
The inventor of the suburban indoor mall came to rue his creations. But now they are dying off anyway.
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